Traditional Musical Instrument And Folk Music


Rebab arab
Rebab is a traditional Malaysian musical instrument. Spread through south east Asia by ancient Arab merchant.  Arabian Rebab can be found in historical record & painting in medieval Europe brought by Moors of north Africa to the Iberian peninsular.  9th century Persian Geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih wrote about Byzantine lira (or lūrā) a fiddle instrument similar to Arabic rabāb. Same kind of instrument can also be found today in China & Malaysia called Erhu (of chinese origin). Malaysian rebab mainly in Kelantan & Terengganu state of Malaysia. Played in a healing ritual of "Main Puteri". Indonesian rebab played along in gamelan orchestra.


The accordion is a box-shaped musical instrument of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist.
It is played by compressing or expanding a bellows whilst pressing buttons or keys, causing valves, called pallets, to open, which allow air to flow across strips of brass or steel, called reeds, that vibrate to produce sound inside the body.
The instrument is sometimes considered a one-man-band as it needs no accompanying instrument. The performer normally plays the melody on buttons or keys on the right-hand manual, and the accompaniment, consisting of bass and pre-set chord buttons, on the left-hand manual.
The accordion is often used in folk music in Europe, North America and South America. It is commonly associated with busking. Some popular music acts also make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is sometimes used in both solo and orchestra performances of classical music.
The oldest name for this group of instruments is actually harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning harmonic, musical. Today, native versions of the name accordion are more common. These names are a reference to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, which concerned "automatically coupled chords on the bass side".
 Accordion, is a common musical instrument used by folk musician in Europe & throughout the world. It's also listed in the same family like Sheng & Khaen in China & Indochina. The reed vibration technique are similar to Malaysian musical instrument sompoton. European introduced the accordion to India & south east Asia in early 19th century which became known as 'harmonium'. Malaysian traditional music use the instrument in music such as dondang sayang, zapin, inang & joget.

 Watch European accordion player


Japanese Bamboo Orchestra
 An orchestra is a sizable instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ορχήστρα, the name for the area in front of an ancient Greek stage reserved for the Greek chorus. The orchestra grew by accretion throughout the eighteenth and 19th centuries, but changed very little in composition during the course of the 20th century.
A smaller-sized orchestra for this time period (of about fifty players or fewer) is called a chamber orchestra. A full-size orchestra (about 100 players) may sometimes be called a "symphony orchestra" or "philharmonic orchestra"; these modifiers do not necessarily indicate any strict difference in either the instrumental constitution or role of the orchestra, but can be useful to distinguish different ensembles based in the same city (for instance, the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra). A symphony orchestra will usually have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. A leading chamber orchestra might employ as many as fifty musicians; some are much smaller than that.

Symphony atau philharmonic orchestra

One of the most notable modern composer for movie soundtrack is John Williams who wrote Star Wars Theme song. He also wrote orchestration  soundtrack music for Jurassic Park, Jaws, Indiana Jones & Harry Potter. 

John Williams


 Modern flute. - Alto flute, bass flute, F-flat flute & piccolo flute 

Ancient bone flute
The oldest flute ever discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago. The authenticity of this fact, however, is often disputed. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany. The five-holed flute has a V-shaped mouthpiece and is made from a vulture wing bone. The researchers involved in the discovery officially published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009. The discovery is also the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". Scientists have also suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.
A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk (from the Geißenklösterle cave, near Ulm, in the southern German Swabian Alb and dated to 30,000 to 37,000 years ago) was discovered in 2004, and two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier (from the same cave in Germany, dated to circa 36,000 years ago) are among the oldest known musical instruments.

Panflute players. Cantigas de Santa Maria, mid-13th century, Spain

Playable 9000-year-old Gudi (literally, "bone flute"), made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes, with five to eight holes each, were excavated from a tomb in Jiahu in the Central Chinese province of Henan.
The earliest extant transverse flute is a chi (篪) flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the later Zhou Dynasty. It is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flute's side instead of the top. Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing, compiled and edited by Confucius, according to tradition.
Seruling bambu
The Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". The former Hebrew term refers to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general. As such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute (a word used in some translations of this biblical passage). Some early flutes were made out of tibias (shin bones). The flute has also always been an essential part of Indian culture and mythology, and the cross flute believed by several accounts to originate in India as Indian literature from 1500 BCE has made vague references to the cross flute.

 The Cheiftains with Mike Molloy - Tha Mason's Apron

Woodwind Instrument

flute player

Brass section-Trumpet, Horn & Tuba
A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument which produces sound when the player blows air against a sharp edge or through a reed, causing the air within its resonator (usually a column of air) to vibrate. Most of these instruments are made of wood but can be made of other materials, such as metals or plastics.

Woodwind instruments can further be divided into 2 groups: flutes and reed instruments.


  • Flutes produce sound when air is blown across an edge. There are two sub-families:
    • The open flute family, in which the player's lips form a stream of air which goes directly from the players lips to the edge, such as transverse flutes and end-blown flutes. Ancient flutes were made from tubular sections of plants such as grasses, reeds, and hollowed-out tree branches. Later, flutes were made of metals such as tin, copper, or bronze. Modern concert flutes are usually made of high-grade metal alloys, usually containing nickel, silver, copper, and/or gold.
    • The closed flute family, in which the musical instrument has a channel to form and direct the air stream over an edge. This family includes fipple-based devices such as whistles and the musical recorder family.

Reed instruments

  • Single-reed instruments use a reed, which is a thin-cut piece of cane or plastic that is held against the aperture of a mouthpiece with a ligature. When air is forced between the reed and the mouthpiece, the reed vibrates, creating the sound. Single reed instruments include the clarinet and saxophone families, and others like the duduk and the chalumeau.
  • Double-reed instruments, use two precisely cut, small pieces of cane joined together at the base. The finished, bound reed is inserted into the top of the instrument and vibrates as air is forced between the two pieces. There are two sub-families:
    • Exposed double-reed instruments, where the reed goes between the player's lips. In this family include Western classical instruments the oboe, cor anglais (also called English horn) and bassoon, and many types of shawms throughout the world.
    • Capped double-reed instruments, where the player just blows through a hole in a cap that covers the reed. This family includes the crumhorn and the cornamuse.

  • Bagpipes can have single and/or double reeds. These are functionally the same as capped reed instruments as the reeds are not in contact with player's lips.
  • Free reed aerophone instruments that has its sound produced as air flows past a vibrating reed in a frame. Air pressure is typically generated by breath like a harmonica or with bellows such as an accordion.

Modern symphony orchestra woodwinds

The modern symphony orchestra's woodwinds section typically includes: 3 flutes, 1 piccolo, 3 oboes, 1 English horn, 3 clarinets, 1 bass clarinet, 3 bassoons, and 1 contrabassoon. The section may also on occasion be expanded by the addition of a saxophone.

Wind instrument can also be found in south east Asia & that include tumpong, kalaleng, pulalu & palendag dari of Philippines. Suling or Seruling bambu from Indonesia & Malaysia.

Strings musical instument

A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. In the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, used in organology, they are called chordophones. The most common string instruments in the string family are guitar, violin, viola, cello, double bass, banjo, mandolin, ukulele, and harp. There are 3 group of string instrument:-

  1. Lutes - instruments in which the strings are supported by a neck and a bout ("gourd"), for instance a guitar, a violin, a saz.

Harps - instruments in which the strings are contained within a frame.

Zithers - instruments with the strings mounted on a body, such as a guqin, a cimbalom, an autoharp, or a piano.

Traditional musical instrument of south east Asia consist of gambus, sape, sundatang (Malaysia), kecapi (Jawa & Sulawesi Island of Indonesia), kutiyapi (Filipina), Erhu (etnik cina) & many more.

Vielle a medieval musical instrument

Reed Musical Instrument

Gambar atas keluarga saxophone- soprano, tenor, alto & baritone  ^

A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to produce a sound on a musical instrument. The reeds of most Woodwind instruments are made from Arundo donax ("Giant cane") or synthetic material; tuned reeds (as in harmonicas and accordions) are made of metal or synthetics.
Scottish Highland Bagpipe

France bagpipe-

  • Musette de cour: A French open ended smallpipe, believed by some to be an ancestor of the Northumbrian smallpipes, used for classical compositions in 'folk' style in the 18th Century French court. The shuttle design for the drones was recently revived and added to a mouth blown Scottish smallpipe.
  • Biniou (or biniou kozh "old style bagpipe"): a mouth blown bagpipe from Brittany, a Celtic region of northwestern France. It is the most famous bagpipe of France. The great Highland bagpipe is also used in marching bands called bagadoù and known as biniou braz ("great bagpipe").
  • Veuze, found in Western France around Nantes and into the Breton marshes.
  • Cabrette: bellows-blown, played in the Auvergne region of central France.
  • Chabrette (or chabretta): found in the Limousin region of central France.
  • Bodega (or craba): found in Languedoc region of southern France, made of an entire goat skin.
  • Boha: found in the Gascogne and Landes regions of southwestern France, notable for having no separate drone, but a drone and chanter bored into a single piece of wood.
  • Musette bressane: found in the Bresse region of eastern France
  • Cornemuse du Centre (or musette du centre): bagpipes of Central France) are of many different types, some mouth blown. They can be found in the Bourbonnais, Berry, Nivernais, and Morvan regions of France and in different tonalities.
  • Chabrette poitevine: found in the Poitou region of west-central France, but now extremely rare.
  • Caramusa: a small bagpipe with a single parallel drone, native to Corsica
  • Musette bechonnet, named from its creator, Joseph Bechonnet (1820-1900 AD) of Effiat.
  • Bousine, a small droneless bagpipe played in Normandy. (fr:Bousine)
  • Loure, a Norman bagpipe which gives its name to the French Baroque dance loure.
  • Pipasso, a bagpipe native to Picardy in northern France
  • Sourdeline, an extinct bellows-blown pipe, likely of Italian origin
  • Samponha, a double-chantered pipe played in the Pyrenees

The Netherlands and Belgium

  • Doedelzak (or pijpzak): found in Flanders and the Netherlands, this type of bagpipe was made famous in the paintings of Pieter Brueghel the Elder; died out, but revived in the late 20th century.
  • Muchosa (or muchosac): found in the Hainaut province of Wallonia, in southern Belgium, and previously known down into the north of France as far as Picardy


  • Dudelsack: German bagpipe with two drones and one chanter. Also called Schäferpfeife (shepherd pipe) or Sackpfeife. The drones are sometimes fit into one stock and do not lie on the player's shoulder but are tied to the front of the bag. (see: de:Schäferpfeife)
  • Mittelaltersackpfeife: Reconstruction of medieval bagpipes after descriptions by Michael Praetorius and depictions by Albrecht Dürer, among others. While the exterior is reconstructed from these sources, the interior and sound are often similar to the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe. Commonly tuned in A minor and used by musical groups specialising in medieval tunes. Often to be seen at medieval festivals and markets. (see: de:Marktsackpfeife)
  • Huemmelchen: small bagpipe with the look of a small medieval pipe or a Dudelsack. The sound is similar to that of the Uilleann pipes, or sometimes the smallpipes. Seldom louder than 60 or 70 dB.
  • Dudy or kozoł (Lower Sorbian kózoł) are large types of bagpipes (in E flat) played among the (originally) Slavic-speaking Sorbs of Eastern Germany, near the borders with both Poland and the Czech Republic; smaller Sorbian types are called dudki or měchawa (in F). Yet smaller is the měchawka (in A, Am) known in German as Dreibrümmchen. The dudy/kozoł has a bent drone pipe that is hung across the player’s shoulder, and the chanter tends to be curved as well.


  • Schweizer Sackpfeife (Swiss bagpipe): In Switzerland, the Sackpfiffe was a common instrument in the folk music from the Middle Ages to the early 18th century, documented by iconography and in written sources. It had one or two drones and one chanter with double reeds.


  • Bock (literally, male goat): a bellows-blown pipe with large bells at the end of the single drone and chanter


  • Uilleann pipes: Bellows-blown bagpipe with keyed or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators). The most common type of bagpipes in Irish traditional music.
  • Great Irish Warpipes: Carried by most Irish regiments of the British Army (except the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) until the late 1960s, when the Great Highland Bagpipe became standard. The Warpipe differed from the latter only in having a single tenor drone.
  • Brian Boru bagpipes: Carried by the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and had three drones, one of which was a baritone, pitched between bass and tenor. Unlike the chanter of the Great Highland Bagpipe, its chanter is keyed, allowing for a greater tonal range.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it developed into the modern uilleann bagpipe.

United Kingdom

Kathryn Tickell playing a "16 keyed" Northumbrian smallpipe.
  • Great Highland Bagpipe: the world's most commonly played bagpipe.
  • Northumbrian smallpipes: a smallpipe with a closed end chanter played in staccato.
  • Border pipes: also called the "Lowland Bagpipe", commonly confused with smallpipes, but louder. Played in the Lowlands of Scotland, and in England near the Anglo-Scottish border. Conically bored, less raucous in timbre than the Highland pipes, but partially or fully chromatic.
  • Scottish smallpipes: a modern re-interpretation of an extinct instrument. Derived from the Northumbrian pipes by Colin Ross and others.
  • Cornish bagpipes: an extinct type of double chanter bagpipe from Cornwall (southwest England); there are currently attempts being made to revive it on the basis of literary descriptions and iconographic representations.
  • Welsh pipes (Welsh: pibe cyrn, pibgod): Of two types, one a descendant of the pibgorn, the other loosely based on the Breton Veuze. Both are mouthblown with one bass drone.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it was developed into the modern Uilleann bagpipe.
  • English bagpipes: with the exception of the Northumbrian smallpipes, no English bagpipes maintained an unbroken tradition. However, music enthusiasts are attempting to "reconstruct" various English bagpipes based on descriptions and representations, but no actual physical evidence.
  • Yorkshire bagpipes, known in Shakespeare's time, but now extinct
  • Lincolnshire bagpipes, a one-drone pipe extinct by 1850, with one reproduction made in the modern era
  • Lancanshire bagpipes, widely mentioned in early-Modern literature and travel accounts
  • Zetland pipes: a reconstruction of pipes believed to have been brought to the Shetland Islands by the Vikings, though not clearly historically attested.

Northern Europe

Traditional Swedish bagpipes, säckpipa, made by Leif Eriksson


  • Säckpipa: Also the Swedish word for "bagpipe" in general, this instrument was on the brink of extinction in the first half of the 20th century. It has a cylindrical bore and a single reed, as well as a single drone at the same pitch as the bottom note of the chanter.


  • Dūdas: Latvian bagpipe, with single reed chanter and one drone.


  • Labanoro Dūda: a bagpipe native to Lithuania, with single reed chanter and one drone.


  • Torupill: an Estonian bagpipe with one single-reeded chanter and 1-3 drones.MP3


Northen Europe

  • Säkkipilli: The Finnish bagpipes died out but have been revived since the late 20th century by musicians such as Petri Prauda.

A Serbian bagpiper
  • Volynka (Ukrainian: Волинка), (Russian: Волынка): It is a Slavic bagpipe. Its etymology comes from the region in which it was most popular - Volyn in Ukraine.
  • Dudy (also known by the German name Bock): Czech bellows-blown bagpipe with a long, crooked drone and chanter (usually with wooden billy-goat head) that curves up at the end.
  • Dudy or kozoł (Lower Sorbian kózoł) are large types of bagpipes (in E flat) played among the (originally) Slavic-speaking Sorbs of Eastern Germany, near the borders with both Poland and the Czech Republic; smaller Sorbian types are called dudki or měchawa (in F). Yet smaller is the měchawka (in A, Am) known in German as Dreibrümmchen. The dudy/kozoł has a bent drone pipe that is hung across the player’s shoulder, and the chanter tends to be curved as well.
  • Cimpoi is the name for the Romanian bagpipes. Two main categories of bagpipes were used in Romania: with a double chanter and with a single chanter. Both have a single drone and straight bore chanter and is less strident than its Balkan relatives.
  • Magyar duda or Hungarian duda (also known as tömlősíp, bőrduda and Croatian duda) has a double chanter (two parallel bores in a single stick of wood, Croatian versions have three or four) with single reeds and a bass drone. It is typical of a large group of pipes played in the Carpathian Basin.


Dudy wielkopolskie (man) and Kozioł czarny (woman)
  • Koza ("goat" or kozioł (buck), or gajdy) is the generic term for Polish bagpies. They are sometimes also wrongly named kobza. They are used in folk music of Podhale, Żywiec Beskids, Cieszyn Silesia and mostly in Greater Poland, where there are known to be four basic variants of bagpipes:
    • Dudy wielkopolskie (Greater Polish bagpipes) with two subtypes: Rawicz-Gostyń and Kościan-Buk
    • Kozioł biały (or kozioł biały weselny)
    • Kozioł czarny (or kozioł czarny ślubny)
    • Sierszeńki

The Balkans

  • Gaida (also the large kaba gaida from the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria): Southern Balkan (i.e. Bulgarian and Macedonian) and Greek and Albanian bagpipe with one drone and one chanter
  • Istarski mih (Piva d'Istria): a double chantered, droneless Croatian bagpipe whose side by side chanters are cut from a single rectangular piece of wood. They are typically single reed instruments, using the Istrian scale.
  • Gajdy or gajde: the name for various bagpipes of Eastern Europe, found in Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, and Croatia.
  • Duda, used in some parts of Croatia

Southern Europe

Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain)

Gaita is a generic term for "bagpipe" in Spanish, Portuguese, Galego, Asturian, Catalan and Aragonese, for distinct bagpipes used in across northern Spain and Portugal, and down the eastern coast of Spain and the Balearic Islands. Just like "Northumbrian smallpipes" or "Great Highland bagpipes," each country and region attributes its toponym to the respective gaita name. Most of them have a conical chanter with a partial second octave, obtained by overblowing. Folk groups playing these instruments have become popular in recent years, and pipe bands have been formed in some traditions.

A piper with his gaita sanabresa
  • Sac de gemecs: used in Catalonia (eastern Spain).
  • Xeremia: played in Majorca, often accompanying the flabiol and drum.
  • Galician gaita: traditional bagpipe used in Galicia and Northern and Central Portugal.
  • Gaita de boto: native to Aragon, distinctive for its tenor drone running parallel to the chanter.
  • Gaita de saco: native to Soria, La Rioja, Alava, and Burgos in north-central Spain. Possibly the same as the lost gaita de fuelle of Old Castile.
  • Gaita asturiana: native to Asturias. Very similar to the gaita gallega but of heavier construction with an increased capability for octave jumps and chromatic notes.
  • Gaita transmontana (or gaita mirandesa): native to the Tras-os-Montes region of Portugal.
  • Gaita sanabresa: played in Puebla de Sanabria, in the Zamora province of western Spain
  • Gaita cabreiresa (or gaita lionesa): an extinct but revived pipe native to Leon
  • Gaita alistana: played in Aliste
  • Odrecillo: a small medieval bagpipe, with or without drones


    * Piva: used in northern Italy (Bergamo, Emilia), and
    * Zampogna (also called ciaramella, ciaramedda, or surdullina depending on style and or region): A generic name for an Italian bagpipe, with different scale arrangements for two chanters (for different regions of Italy), and from zero to three drones (the drones usually sound a fifth, in relation to the chanter keynote, though in some cases a drone plays the tonic).
    * bordering regions of Switzerland such as Ticino. A single chantered, single drone instrument, with double reeds, often played in accompaniment to a shawm, or piffero.
    * Müsa: played in Pavia, Alessandria, Genova and Piacenza.
    * Baghèt: similar to the piva, played in the region of Bergamo
    * Surdelina, a double-chantered, bellows-blown pipe from Naples, with keys on both chanters and drones


    * Żaqq (with definite article: iż-żaqq): The most common form of Maltese bagipes. A double-chantered, single-reed, droneless hornpipe.
    * Qrajna: a smaller Maltese bagpipe

    * Askomandoura (Greek: ασκομαντούρα): bagpipe used in Cretephoto
    * Tsampouna (Greek: τσαμπούνα): Greek Islands bagpipe with a double chanter, no drone and a bag made from an entire goatskin. Pronounced "saw-bow-nah". (Alternately tsambouna, tsabouna, etc.)
    * Gaida (Greek: γκάιδα): Thrace.


South Asia

A Kumaoni bagpiper playing the Masak-Been as Chholiya Sword Dancers dance.


  • Masak-been (Kumaoni : मसकबीन): of the Kumaon Division of the Indian state of Uttarakhand.
It evolved from the Great Highland Bagpipes which were introduced here by the British during British Raj in India.

Southwest Asia


Pontic bagpipe/dankiyo/tulum consist of: 1. Post - Skin (bag): Animal Skin, 2. Fisaktir - blowpipe: Wood or Bone, 3. Avlos - flute: Wood & Reeds, 4 . Kalame - Reeds: Reeds
  • Dankiyo: A word of Greek origin for "bagpipe" used in the Trabzon Province of Turkey.
  • Tulum or Guda: double-chantered, droneless bagpipe of Rize and Artvin provinces of Turkey. Usually played by the Laz and Hamsheni people.
  • Gaida: Usually played by Thracians, Turks, and Pomaks in Turkey.

The Caucasus

  • Parkapzuk (Armenian: Պարկապզուկ): A droneless horn-tipped bagpipe played in Armenia
  • Gudastviri (Georgian: გუდასტვირი): A double-chantered horn-tipped bagpipe played in Georgia. Also called a chiboni or stviri.
  • Tulum (Turkmen: tulum): Native to Azerbaijan.


  • Ney anban (Persian: نی انبان): a droneless double-chantered pipe played in Southern Iran

Arab states of the Persian Gulf

  • Habbān (Arabic: حبان): a generic term covering several types of bapipes, including traditional Bedouin bagpipes in Kuwait, and a modern version of the Great Highland Bagpipes played in Oman.
  • Jirba (قربة): a type of double-chantered droneless bagpipe, primarily played by the ethnic Iranian minority of Bahrain.

North Africa



  • Zukra (Arabic: زكرة‎): famous in Libya bagpipe with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.


  • Mizwad (Arabic: مِزْود‎; plural مَزاود mazāwid): Tunisian bagpipe with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.


  • Ghaita (غيطه): a type of bagpipe played in Algeria.

Uillean bagpipe player

Rainforest World Music Festival

The Rainforest World Music Festival is a unique festival that brings together on the same stage renowned world musicians from all continents and indigenous musicians from the interiors of the
mythical island of Borneo at Kampung Budaya Sarawak by Sarawak Tourism Board. This year the festival was held at 8-10 July 2011.

Celts Music And Culture

Map of the Celts

The Celts (/ˈkɛlts/ or /ˈsɛlts/, see pronunciation of Celtic) were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Roman-era Europe who spoke Celtic languages.

The earliest archaeological culture commonly accepted as Celtic, or rather Proto-Celtic, was the central European Hallstatt culture (c. 800-450 BC), named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria. By the later La Tène period (c. 450 BC up to the Roman conquest), this Celtic culture had expanded over a wide range of regions, whether by diffusion or migration: to the British Isles (Insular Celts), the Iberian Peninsula (Celtiberians, Celtici and Gallaeci), much of Central Europe, (Gauls) and following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC as far east as central Anatolia (Galatians).

The earliest directly attested examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions, beginning from the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested only in inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic is attested from about the 4th century AD in ogham inscriptions, although it is clearly much earlier. Literary tradition begins with Old Irish from about the 8th century. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge (The Cattle Raid of Cooley), survive in 12th-century recensions. According to the theory of John T. Koch and others, the Tartessian language may have been the earliest directly attested Celtic language with the Tartessian written script used in the inscriptions based on a version of a Phoenician script in use around 825 BC.

By mid 1st millennium AD, following the expansion of the Roman Empire and the Great Migrations (Migration Period) of Germanic peoples, Celtic culture and Insular Celtic had become restricted to Ireland and to the western and northern parts of Great Britain (Wales, Scotland, Cornwall and the Isle of Man) and northern France (Brittany). Between the fifth and eighth centuries AD the Celtic-speaking communities of the Atlantic regions had emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity. In language, religion, and art they shared a common heritage that distinguished them from the culture of surrounding polities. The Continental Celtic languages ceased to be widely used by the 6th century.

Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels (Irish, Scottish and Manx), the Brythonic Celts (Welsh, Cornish, and Bretons) of the medieval and modern periods. A modern "Celtic identity" was constructed in the context of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, Ireland, and other European territories, such as Galicia. In France, a revival of Breton is taking place in Brittany.

Celt music is a term utilised by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic people of Western Europe. As such there is no real body of music which can be accurately described as Celtic, but the term has stuck and may refer to both orally-transmitted traditional music and recorded popular music.

Celtic music means two things mainly. First, it is the music of the peoples calling themselves Celts (a non-musical, primarily political definition), as opposed to, say, "French music" or "English music." Secondly, it refers to whatever qualities may be unique to the musics of the Celtic Nations (a musical definition). Some insist that different ostensibly Celtic musics actually have nothing in common-–such as Geoff Wallis and Sue Wilson in their book The Rough Guide to Irish Music-–whereas others (such as Alan Stivell), say they do.

Often, the term Celtic music is applied to the music of Ireland and Scotland because both lands have produced well-known distinctive styles which actually have genuine commonality and clear mutual influences; however, it is notable that Irish and Scottish traditional musicians themselves avoid the term "Celtic music," except when forced by the necessities of the market. The definition is further complicated by the fact that Irish independence has allowed Ireland to promote 'Celtic' music as a specifically Irish product. In reality, the terms 'Scots/Scottish' and 'Irish' are purely modern geographical references to a people who share a common Celtic ancestry and consequently, a common musical heritage.

These styles are known because of the importance of Irish and Scottish people in the English speaking world, especially in the United States, where they had a profound impact on American music, particularly bluegrass and country music. The music of Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man, Brittany, Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias (Spain) and Portugal are also considered Celtic music, the tradition being particularly strong in Brittany, where Celtic festivals large and small take place throughout the year, and in Wales, where the ancient eisteddfod tradition has been revived and flourishes. Additionally, the musics of ethnically Celtic peoples abroad are vibrant, especially in Canada and the United States.

In Celtic Music: A Complete Guide, June Skinner Sawyers acknowledges six Celtic nationalities divided into two groups according to their linguistic heritage. The Q-Celtic nationalities are the Irish, Scottish and Manx peoples, while the P-Celtic groups are the Cornish, Bretons and Welsh peoples. Musician Alan Stivell uses a similar dichotomy, between the Gaelic (Irish/Scottish/Manx) and the Brythonic  (Breton/Welsh/Cornish) branches, which differentiate "mostly by the extended range (sometimes more than two octaves) of Irish and Scottish melodies and the closed range of Breton and Welsh melodies (often reduced to a half-octave), and by the frequent use of the pure pentatonic scale in Gaelic music."
Definition debate

At issue is the lack of many common threads uniting the "Celtic" peoples listed above. While the ancient Celts undoubtedly had their own musical styles, the actual sound of their music remains a complete mystery.

There is also tremendous variation between "Celtic" regions. Ireland, Scotland, and Brittany have living traditions of language and music, and there has been a recent major revival of interest in Wales. However, Cornwall and the Isle of Man have only small-scale revivalist movements that have yet to take hold. Galicia has no Celtic language today (Galician is a Romance language descending from Galician-Portuguese, although all the Western part of the Peninsula had Celtic languages in pre-Roman times, as did much of Europe, but Galician music is often claimed to be "Celtic." The same is true of the music of Asturias, Cantabria, and that of Northern Portugal (some say even traditional music from Central Portugal can be labeled Celtic). Thus traditionalists and musicological scholars dispute that the "Celtic" lands have any folk connections to each other.

Critics of the idea of modern Celtic music claim that the idea is the creation of modern marketing designed to stimulate regional identity in the creation of a consumer niche; June Skinner Sawyers, for example, notes that "Celtic music is a marketing term that I am using, for the purposes of this book, as a matter of convenience, knowing full well the cultural baggage that comes with it". The so-called "marketing" or "show-business" creation was popularized by the idealistic man who first (late 1960s) blended the music of all the Celtic countries with a modern touch in his recordings and concerts such as the 1971 album Renaissance of the Celtic Harp: the Breton Alan Stivell. Although this composer is one of the main modern promoters of this kind of music, he did not create the term.

Identifying "common characteristics" of Celtic music is problematic. Most of the popular musical forms now thought of as characteristically "Celtic" were once common in many places in Western Europe. There is debate over whether jigs were adapted from the Italian gigue, a common form of the baroque era, for example, while polkas have their origin in Czech and Polish tradition.

On the other hand, there are musical genres and styles specific to each Celtic country, due in part to the influence of individual song traditions and the characteristics of specific languages. Strathspeys are specific to Highland Scotland, for example, and it has been hypothesized that they mimic the rhythms of the Scottish Gaelic language.

The Celtic music scene involves a large number of music festivals. Some of the most prominent include:

    * Festival Internacional do Mundo Celta de Ortigueira (Ortigueira, Galicia) (Spain)
    * Festival Intercéltico de Avilés (Avilés, Asturies, Spain)
    * Folixa na Primavera (Mieres, Asturies, Spain)
    * Yn Chruinnaght (Isle of Man)
    * Celtic Colours (Cape Breton, Nova Scotia)
    * Celtic Connections (Glasgow, Scotland
    * Festival Interceltique de Lorient (Lorient, Brittany)
    * Fleadh ceol na hEireann (Tullamore, Ireland)
    * Festival Intercéltico de Sendim (Sendim, Portugal)
    * Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway, Scotland)
    * Montelago Celtic Night (Colfiorito, Macerata, Italy)
    * Triskell International Celtic Festival (Trieste, Italy)

Celtic fusion

Main article: Celtic Fusion

The oldest musical tradition which fits under the label of Celtic fusion originated in the rural American south in the early colonial period and incorporated Scottish, Scots-Irish, Irish, English, and African influences. Variously referred to as roots music, American folk music, or old-time music, this tradition has exerted a strong influence on all forms of American music, including country, blues, and rock and roll. In addition to its lasting effects on other genres, it marked the first modern large-scale mixing of musical traditions from multiple ethnic and religious communities within the Celtic diaspora.

In the 1960s several bands put forward modern adaptations of Celtic music pulling influences from several of the Celtic nations at once to create a modern pan-celtic sound. A few of those include bagadoù (Breton pipe bands), Fairport Convention, Pentangle, Steeleye Span and Horslips.

In the 1970s Clannad made their mark initially in the folk and traditional scene, and then subsequently went on to bridge the gap between traditional Celtic and pop music in the 1980s and 1990s, incorporating elements from New Age, smooth jazz, and folk rock. Traces of Clannad's legacy can be heard in the music of many artists, including Enya, Altan, Capercaillie, The Corrs, Loreena McKennitt, Anúna, Riverdance and U2.

Later, beginning in 1982 with The Pogues' invention of Celtic folk-punk and Stockton's Wing blend of Irish traditional and Pop, Rock and Reggie, there has been a movement to incorporate Celtic influences into other genres of music. Bands like Flogging Molly, Black 47, Dropkick Murphys, The Young Dubliners, The Tossers introduced a hybrid of Celtic rock, punk, reggae, hardcore and other elements in the 1990s that has become popular with Irish-American youth.

Today there are Celtic-influenced sub genres of virtually every type of popular music including electronica, rock, metal, punk, hip hop, reggae, new age, Latin, Andean and pop. Collectively these modern interpretations of Celtic music are sometimes referred to as Celtic fusion.
Other modern adaptations

Outside of America, the first deliberate attempts to create a "Pan-Celtic music" were made by the Breton Taldir Jaffrennou, having translated songs from Ireland, Scotland, and Wales into Breton between the two world wars. One of his major works was to bring "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" (the Welsh national anthem) back in Brittany and create lyrics in Breton. Eventually this song became "Bro goz va zadoù" ("Old land of my fathers") and is the most widely accepted Breton anthem. In the 70s, the Breton Alan Cochevelou (future Alan Stivell) began playing a mixed repertoire from the main Celtic countries on the Celtic harp his father created.
Probably the most successful all inclusive Celtic music composition in recent years is Shaun Daveys composition 'The Pilgrim'. This suite depicts the journey of St. Colum Cille through the Celtic nations of Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany and Galicia. The suite which includes a Scottish pipe band, Irish and Welsh harpists, Galician gaitas, Irish uilleann pipes, the bombardes of Brittany, two vocal soloists and a narrator is set against a background of a classical orchestra and a large choir.

Modern music may also be termed "Celtic" because it is written and recorded in a Celtic language, regardless of musical style. Many of the Celtic languages have experienced resurgences in modern years, spurred on partly by the action of artists and musicians who have embraced them as hallmarks of identity and distinctness. In 1971, the Irish band Skara Brae recorded its first and only LP (simply called Skara Brae), all songs in Irish Gaelic. In 1978 Runrig recorded an album in Scottish Gaelic. In 1992 Capercaillie recorded "A Prince Among Islands", the first Scottish Gaelic language record to reach the UK top 40. In 1996, a song in Breton represented France in the 41st Eurovision Song Contest, the first time in history that France had a song without a word in French. Since about 2005, Oi Polloi (from Scotland) have recorded in Scottish Gaelic. Mill a h-Uile Rud (a Scottish Gaelic punk band from Seattle) recorded in the language in 2004.

Several contemporary bands have Welsh language songs, such as Ceredwen, which fuses traditional instruments with trip-hop beats, the Super Furry Animals, Fernhill, and so on (see the Music of Wales article for more Welsh and Welsh-language bands). The same phenomenon occurs in Brittany, where many singers record songs in Breton, traditional or modern (hip hop, rap, and so on.).
See also

    * Folk music of Ireland
    * Music of Brittany
    * Music of Cornwall
    * Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias
    * Music of the Isle of Man
    * Music of Scotland
    * Music of Wales
    * Traditional Gaelic music

The word "retro" derives from the Latin prefix retro, meaning "backwards" or "in past times" – particularly as seen in the words retrograde, implying a movement toward the past instead of a progress toward the future, and retrospective, referring to a nostalgic (or critical) eye toward the past.

In the postwar period, it increased in usage with the appearance of the word retrorocket (short for "retrograde rocket", a rocket generating thrust in a direction opposite to that of a spacecraft's orbital motion) used by the American space program in the 1960s. In France, the word rétro, an abbreviation for rétrospectif gained cultural currency with reevaluations of Charles de Gaulle and France’s role in World War II. The French mode rétro of the 1970s reappraised in film and novels the conduct of French civilians during the Nazi occupation. The term rétro was soon applied to nostalgic French fashions that recalled the same period.

Shortly thereafter it was introduced into English by the fashion and culture press, where it suggests a rather cynical revival of older but relatively recent fashions. (Elizabeth E. Guffey, Retro: The Culture of Revival, pp. 9–22). In Simulacra and Simulation, French theorist Jean Baudrillard describes "retro" as a demythologization of the past, distancing the present from the big ideas that drove the “modern” age.

Retro is a culturally outdated or aged style, trend, mode, or fashion, from the overall postmodern past, that has since that time become functionally or superficially the norm once again. The use of "retro" style iconography and imagery interjected into post-modern art, advertising, mass media, etc. It generally implies a vintage of at least 15 or 20 years.

 Picture Of Traditional Musician


 North Africa

Marrakech, North Afirica




Sarawak, Malaysia

Middle East









Eastern Europe




English folk





1940s England




South America






Watch Uyghur traditional music western China

South East Asian Gongs And Brass Drums


1,500 years old Hindu ruin in Kedah
Indonesian Gamelan played in Javanese Pelog & Slendro scale similar to pentatonic. The Scale muzik originated from India, China & local. Ancient diatonic-pentatonic China Scale is obvious in musical scale of Indonesian pelog / slendro. Indian scale is much obvious in a way the gamelan played. Indian influence can be heard in modal system called Patet in Java & Saih in Bali. Gamelan meant hit, to beat or to hammer = gamel. Early proof showed that a carved gamelan on the rock of candi Borobudur dated back at 800AD. Gamelan is not the only music of the archipelago which received ancient Chinese & Indian influence but other culture like Malay & others culture does take some foreign element of Chinese, Indian in ancient times due to trade between those civilization before Islam came in 800AD. Ancient Indian & mixture local element can be found in the melody of 'lagu asli' Malay traditional folk song. Bronze Gong is China originated musical instrument introduced to south east Asia to places we know today as Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra, Malaysian peninsular, Thailand, Indonesia since 500BC.

Ancient Dongson Drum
Agung - gongs of Philippine

South China & Vietnam introduced the making of such drums throughout south east Asia at 600BC

 Northern India traditional singing in raga scale.

Portuguese Influence In South East Asia

If you have any chance to visit Malacca in Malaysia, you will see the ruin of medieval Portuguese fortress the A Famosa. Before the Portuguese invasion, a Malaccan Islamic sultanate palace was constructed on the hill. It was demolished later in the war and St. Paul church was built at the site by the Portuguese. That arrow in the picture show the location to what is left from the fortress. The ruin is Port De Santiago of A Famosa fortress among many gateway inside the fortress. In 1641 Dutch invade the city in a bloody war against Portugal. The fortress built and design similar to fortress built in 16 century Europe. Demolished by the British Military in 1806 led by an Englishman Sir William Farquhar to stop the rising influence of Dutch in the region.

                                Inside the king’s court of the King of Portugal, 16th century Europe

When Portuguese occupied Malacca in 1511, they brought along their music and culture which then assimilated into local culture. One of the significance is Joget and Keroncong. Before that it was known as Ramvong, Rahavai (rajavai) and Chakunchak. Perhaps those name have been used by locals originated from Portuguese soldier of fortune from India and south east Asia. Basic step of Malay's joget dances  is an adaptation from European double step dance. The dance and Portuguese music of Portugal share the same relation of origin and culture with their northern neighbors the Galicia and Asturias of Spain. These were inheritance of the ancient Celts.

Folk Dance Of European Portuguese

However the Joget dance today is part of Malay culture inheritance a product of assimilation and adaptation from western blended with local music and presented in local style melody andmusic. Malay language have borrowed words from the Portuguese such as meza (meja), sapato (sepatu/shoe), verandah (beranda), carritta (kereta/car), almario (almari/cupboard)  and many more. Intermarriage between Portuguese and Malay produced the Kristang ethnic of Portuguese descent in Malacca, Malaysia.

Traditional dance of European Portuguese

 Malaysian Eurasian ethnic minority dance the Branyo

Malay folk dance "Joget"which is a blend of varies influence of Portuguese, Malay and Arab culture

Samba music of Brazil is another example of Portuguese culture integrated into local music a combination of African, European and natives. 


Ukulele is Hawaii musical instrument originated from the interpretation of cavaquinho or braguinha and also rajão. Brought to the island by Portuguese from Europe in19th century. Hawaiian local never see such instrument impressed to watch the Portuguese hand and fingers pressing the string on fingerboard playing the instrument like a flea jumping so they called it ukulele means jumping flea. Ukulele reach popularity in USA during the 19th century where it is then spread to international.

Octo Bass
Octo Bass

As you know, electric bass guitar is a guitar that plays the sound of lower OCTAVE note, just as in the doublebass of jazz band orchestra. Electric guitar is a common musical instrument for modern music. But Do you know, there are some classical songs that included an "Octobass" in the orchestra, such as Berlioz, Mahler, Strauss, Brahms, Wagner, Tchaikovsky & more. Imagine when you hear the song of the orchestra Berliotz, Mahler or Wagner accompanied by this gigantic "octobass", must be pretty "heavy" sounded.

Octo means eight in Greek language. The difference between cello and octobass is like the boy before and after puberty. According to the Berlioz Octobass can play a note at the bottom of the range beyond the human ear (not audible). Bottom rope in tune C1 (32.7 Hz), a lower than C tools OCTAVE cello (C2, 65.41 Hz) Note the note at the bottom as the tools of modern high-double bass connection C. rope in the middle of the tune (tune or tunes) to the G1, note the top string tuned C2. However since Octobass is a great musical instrument it was not so popular today. Probably we'll never see this device play in the orchestra because bass instrument can be amplified by means of mic placement or pick up.

Dangdut Music

Orkes Melayu
The origin of dangdut, the most popular music in Indonesia, is said to be musik Melayu (Malay music), which was played by orkes Melayu in the 1950s. But it has not been clarified how musik Melayu, which was only played in the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, and West Kalimantan, became popular and firmly established in Java, particularly in Batavia before the 1950s. This paper highlights the change and development of orkes Melayu in the late 19th century and early decades of the 20th century through the development of bangsawan and Komedi Stamboel, pre-modern theater in Indonesia and Malaysia

Orkes Melayu tahun 1950-an

In the late 19th century, bangsawan was not widely popular among the Javanese in Jawa because of its high Malay language and musik Melayu. But in the early 20th century, musik Melayu began to spread among Javanese people through Komedi Stamboel and other troupes which imitated the style of Komedi Stamboel. Under these conditions, samrah Betawi, which was greatly influenced by bangsawan, was formed at Batavia in 1918. Because Malay language called Melayu Betawi had been used as a common language among the inhabitants of Batavia, it was relatively easy for them to accept and enjoy Malay theatre and music. Musik samrah played in samrah Betawi was also influenced by musik Melayu in terms of the composition of musical instruments, scale and rhythm. The characteristic of musik samrah was the use of the harmonium, a typical Indian musical instrument, as a result of which musik samrah was often called orkes harmonium. It is likely that this orkes harmonium was the same as orkes Melayu which was often called orkes harmonium in the 1930s.
In the 60s dangdut begin to be played wit modern instrument like electric guitar, bass, organ & drum. 1970s show some changes when dangdut performer like Rhoma Irama who ad modern element of funk, jazz & 70s rock. 1980s dangdut musician in Java still called this music a Malay music. Today dangdut is so different from the early days of orkes Melayu, because more Javanese & modern music influence that was later ad.