Musical Instruments

Fender Electric Guitar

 Fender Stratocaster 1960s solid body series. The design of the head neck resemble the Stradivarius violin

The Shadows
Fender Musical Instruments Corporation of Scottsdale, Arizona is a manufacturer of stringed instruments and amplifiers, such as solid-body electric guitars, including the Stratocaster and the Telecaster. The company, previously named the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company, was founded in Fullerton, California, by Clarence Leonidas "Leo" Fender in 1946. Leo Fender also designed one of the first commercially successful solid-body electric basses, the Precision Bass (P-Bass), which has become known in rock, jazz, country, Motown, funk, and other types of music.
The company is a privately held corporation, with the controlling majority of its stock owned by a group of its own company officers and managers. Larry Thomas is Chief Executive Officer and James Broenen is Chief Financial Officer. Fender's headquarters is in Scottsdale, Arizona with manufacturing facilities in Corona, California (USA) and Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico).
Guitar player whose frequent user of Fender guitar - Jimi Hendrix, Ritchie Blackmore, Yngwie Malmsteen, Waylon Jennings, Kurt Cobain, George Harrison, John Frusciante, Keith Richards, Bruce Springsteen, Hank Marvin, Eric Clapton, Mark Knopfler, David Gilmour & many more.

Out there in all 195 countries in the world, there about 100 million guitar & approximately 50 million amateur & professional guitar player

 Marshall stack amp

Fender amplifier

Peavey amplifier

Peavey stack

Eddie Van Halen & 5150 Peavey

A guitar amplifier (or guitar amp) is an electronic amplifier designed to make the signal of an electric or acoustic guitar louder so that it will produce sound through a loudspeaker. Guitar amplifiers also modify the instrument's tone by emphasizing or de-emphasizing certain frequencies and adding electronic effects.
Amplifiers consist of one or more circuit stages which have unique responsibilities in the modification of the input signal. The power amplifier or output stage produces a high current signal to drive a speaker to produce sound. One or more preamplifier stages precede the power amplifier stage. The preamplifier is a voltage amplifier that amplifies the guitar signal to a level that can drive the power stage. There may be one or more tone stages which affect the character of the guitar signal: before the preamp stage (as in the case of guitar pedals), in between the preamp and power stages (as in the cases of effects loop or many dedicated amplifier tone circuits), in between multiple stacked preamp stages, or in feedback loops from a post-preamp signal to an earlier pre-preamp signal (as in the case of presence modifier circuits). The tone stages may also have electronic effects such as equalization, compression, distortion, chorus, or reverb. Amplifiers may use vacuum tubes (in Britain they are called valves), or solid state (transistor) devices, or both.
There are two configurations of guitar amplifiers: combination ("combo") amplifiers, which include an amplifier and one, two, or four speakers in a wooden cabinet; and the standalone amplifier (often called a "head" or "amp head"), which does not include a speaker, but rather passes the signal to a speaker cabinet or "cab". Guitar amplifiers range in price and quality from small, low-powered practice amplifiers, designed for students, which sell for less than US$50, to expensive "boutique" amplifiers which are custom-made for professional musicians and can cost thousands of dollars.

Deep Purple

Jet engine noise at full military level reached 130 dB (20 to 30 meter). Canon shot at 140 dB. The loudest band in the world is a subject of some dispute in musical circles. Many bands have claimed to be the loudest, measuring this in various ways including with decibel meters at concerts and by engineering analysis of the CDs on which their albums are published.
The notion of "loudness equals greatness" pervades rock music to the extent that it has been satirized. In the mockumentary This Is Spinal Tap, the band is presented by the fictional filmmaker Marty di Bergi, as "one of England's loudest bands". One popular joke from the film features Nigel Tufnel displaying the band's amplifiers which are calibrated up to 11, instead of up to 10, allowing them to go "one louder". As a consequence of this, real bands and musicians started buying equipment whose knobs went up to 11, or even higher, with Eddie Van Halen reputedly being the first to do so. Marshall, the company that provided amplifiers for the film that the custom marked knobs were applied to, now sells amplifiers such as its JCM900 (first sold in 1990) whose knobs are marked from 0 to 20.
Volume on the BBC iPlayer is also calibrated up to 11.
Japanese garage punk band Guitar Wolf humorously claim that their album Jet Generation is the loudest album ever recorded and "may cause irreparable damage to stereo equipment".
Another well-known parody is the fictional band Disaster Area (appearing in Douglas Adams's The Restaurant at the End of the Universe), whose concerts can literally devastate entire planets.

Loud Speakers

The heavy metal band Manowar is one claimant of the title of "loudest band in the world", citing a measurement of 129.5 dB in 1994 in Hanover. However, The Guinness Book of World Records listed Manowar as the record holder for the loudest musical performance for an earlier performance in 1984. Guinness does not recognize Manowar's later claim, because it no longer includes a category of loudest band, reportedly because it does not want to encourage hearing damage. Manowar achieved a SPL of 139 dB during the sound check (not the actual performance) at the Magic Circle Fest in 2008.

Decibel records


Led Zeppelin's "Heartbreaker" is said to have reached 130 dB (SPL) observed by a team of participants at the American Speech–Language–Hearing Association. Daniel Kreps of Rolling Stone argues that "Whole Lotta Love" established Led Zeppelin's reputation as one of the loudest bands of their time.


Deep Purple broke the record and were recognized by The Guinness Book of World Records as the "loudest pop group" when in a concert at the London Rainbow Theatre their sound reached 117 dB. Three of their audience members were rendered unconscious.


The Who were listed as the "record holder", at 126 dB, measured at a distance of 32 meters from the speakers at a concert at The Valley (home ground of Charlton Athletic F.C.) on 31 May 1976.


The Australian hard rock band AC/DC once had a trademark of performing painfully loud. During Back in Black tour, they reached 130 dB at some gigs but since there were too many noise complaints, they turned the volume down later.

1984 and 1994


Pioneering English House/Electronica band Leftfield became known for the volume of its live shows on the tour to support their debut album Leftism. In June 1996, while the group was playing at Brixton Academy, the sound system caused dust and plaster to fall from the roof. Sound volume was 137 dB.


British punk band Gallows allegedly broke Manowar's next to last record for loudest band in the world, claiming to have achieved 132.5 dB; however, this record was claimed in an isolated studio environment as opposed to live.


On July 15, 2009, at the Cisco Ottawa Bluesfest in Ottawa, Canada, the band KISS achieved a SPL of 136 dB measured by City of Ottawa Bylaw officers at the sound tent during their live performance (not the sound check). This was 46 dB greater, almost 32 times louder, than the official festival limit of 90 dB. After noise complaints from neighbors in the area, the band was forced to turn the volume down.



History Of Guitar 

Arab Oud
European Lute 15th Century

Guitar is a cordophones can be found in recorded history since ancient times.The English word for it is guitar, German - gitarre,­ France - guitare, Sepanyol - guitar­ra dating back from Arabic Andalucian - Qitara derivative Latin word - Cithara from ancient Greek - kithara all of whom originated from ancient Persian instrument the Tar meant string. Guitar (cithara) are thought to be not a Roman original. Guitar developed from influence of the Arabic Oud musical instrument of north African moors during their conquest of Iberian peninsular (Hispania) in 8th century & Scandinavian 6 strings lute of which guitarra moresca (gitar moor) & guitarra Latina (gitar Latin) came from later. 

"Vihuela" a Spanish guitar of 15th & 16th century thought to be the influence for modern guitar. Vihuela developed in the middle of 15th century in the Kingdom of Aragon (Castilla La Aragon) north east of Spain. In medieval Italy & Portugal it was named viola da mano. Bowed Vihuela later turn into viola a predecessor for violin. Throughout Europe the lute became main musical instrument & can be relate to Moorish Oud of north Africa. From "Tar" of  ancient Persian the strings instrument became Greek kitharra, Arabic Oud in the west & sitar, setar to tanbur in middle Asia & India. During their conquest of far east, the Spanish introduced guitar to south east Asia especially in the Philippines. Although there many acoustic & classical guitar factory in the Philippines, no one of local Filipino make any influential development of electric guitar or modern American music.

Early Medieval Lute And Vihuela an early form of Modern Guitar

Synthesizer Keyboard

Earlier MiniMoog by RA Moog Co 1970's
A synthesizer (often abbreviated "synth") is an electronic instrument capable of producing sounds by generating electrical signals of different frequencies. These electrical signals are played through a loudspeaker or set of headphones. Synthesizers can usually produce a wide range of sounds, which may either imitate other instruments ("imitative synthesis") or generate new timbres.
Synthesizers use a number of different technologies or programmed algorithms, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Other sound synthesis methods, like subharmonic synthesis or granular synthesis, are not found in music synthesizers.
Synthesizers are often controlled with a piano-style keyboard, leading such instruments to be referred to simply as "keyboards". Several other forms of controller have been devised to resemble violins, guitars (see guitar synthesizer) and wind-instruments. Synthesizers without controllers are often called "modules", and they can be controlled using MIDI or CV/Gate methods.
The first electric synthesizer was invented in 1876 by Elisha Gray, who is best known for his development of a telephone prototype. In 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art. The Hammond Novachord was an early but unsuccessful harbinger of synth technology in the 1930s-40s. Robert Moog introduced the first commercially available modern synthesizer in 1964. In the 1970s the development of miniaturized solid-state components allowed synthesizers to become self-contained, portable instruments. By the early 1980s companies were selling compact, modestly priced synthesizers to the public. This, along with the development of Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI), made it easier to integrate and synchronize synthesizers and other electronic instruments for use in musical composition. In the 1990s synthesizers began to appear as computer software, known as software synthesizers.

The synthesizer had a considerable impact on 20th century music. Micky Dolenz of The Monkees bought one of the first Moog synthesizers. The band was the first to release an album featuring a Moog with Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd. in 1967. It reached #1 on the charts. A few months later, both the Rolling Stones' 2000 Light Years From Home and the title track of the Doors' 1967 album Strange Days would also feature a Moog, played by Brian Jones and Paul Beaver respectively. Walter (later Wendy) Carlos's Switched-On Bach (1968), recorded using Moog synthesizers, also influenced numerous musicians of that era and is one of the most popular recordings of classical music ever made. The sound of the Moog also reached the mass market with Simon and Garfunkel's Bookends in 1968 and The Beatles' Abbey Road the following year, and hundreds of other popular recordings subsequently used synthesizers. Electronic music albums by Beaver and Krause, Tonto's Expanding Head Band, The United States of America and White Noise reached a sizeable cult audience and progressive rock musicians such as Richard Wright of Pink Floyd and Rick Wakeman of Yes were soon using the new portable synthesizers extensively. Other early users included Emerson, Lake & Palmer's Keith Emerson, Pete Townshend and The Crazy World of Arthur Brown's Vincent Crane.

The Prophet-5 synthesizer of the late 1970s-early 1980s.
During the 1970s Jean Michel Jarre, Larry Fast and Vangelis released successful electronic instrumental albums. The emergence of Synthpop, a sub-genre of New Wave, in the late 1970s can be largely credited to synthesizer technology. The ground-breaking work of all-electronic German bands such as Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream, via David Bowie during his Berlin period (1976–77), were crucial in the development of the genre. Nick Rhodes, keyboardist of Duran Duran, used Roland Jupiter-4 and Jupiter-8 synthesizers.OMD's "Enola Gay" (1980) used a distinctive electronic percussion and synthesized melody. Soft Cell used a synthesized melody on their 1981 hit "Tainted Love". Other chart hits include Depeche Mode's "Just Can't Get Enough" (1981), and The Human League's "Don't You Want Me". English musician Gary Numan's 1979 hits "Are 'Friends' Electric?" and "Cars" used synthesizers heavily Other notable synthpop groups included Visage, Japan, Ultravox, Spandau Ballet, Culture Club, Eurythmics and Blancmange, and synthesizers became one of the most important instruments in the music industry. Other notable users include Giorgio Moroder, Howard Jones, Kitaro, Stevie Wonder, Peter Gabriel, Kate Bush, Frank Zappa, Yellow Magic Orchestra, A Flock Of Seagulls and Devo. In the 80s synthesizer keyboard is the main instrument for new wave electronic pop & techno music. Artist include Depeche mode & Pet Shop boys.

 Synthesizer keyboard


Roman water pipe organ

 Pipe for channeling the organ sound

Pipe organ

The organ (from Greek όργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool"), is a keyboard instrument of one or more divisions, each played with its own keyboard operated either with the hands or with the feet. The organ is a relatively old musical instrument in the Western musical tradition, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria who is credited with the invention of the hydraulis. By around the 8th century it had overcome early associations with gladiatorial combat and gradually assumed a prominent place in the liturgy of the Catholic Church; subsequently it has re-emerged as a secular and recital instrument.
The reed organ and harmonium was the other main type of organ before the development of electronic organs. It generated its sounds using reeds similar to those of a piano accordion. Smaller, cheaper and more portable than the corresponding pipe instrument, these were widely used in smaller churches and in private homes, but their volume and tonal range was extremely limited, and they were generally limited to one or two manuals, pedalboards being extremely rare.

Since the 1930s, pipeless electric instruments have been available to produce similar sounds and perform similar roles to pipe organs. Many of these have been bought both by houses of worship and other potential pipe organ customers, and also by many musicians both professional and amateur for whom a pipe organ would not be a possibility. Far smaller and cheaper to buy than a corresponding pipe instrument, and in many cases portable, they have taken organ music into private homes and into dance bands and other new environments, and have almost completely replaced the reed organ.
Hammond organ

The Hammond organ was the first successful electric organ, released in the 1930s. It used mechanical, rotating tonewheels to produce the sound waveforms. Its system of drawbars allowed for setting volumes for specific sounds, and it provided vibrato-like effects. The drawbars allow the player to choose volume levels of 0-8 for each of the members of the harmonic series starting from 16'. By emphasizing certain harmonics from the overtone series, desired sounds (such as 'brass' or 'string') can be imitated. Generally, the older Hammond drawbar organs had only preamplifiers and were connected to an external, amplified speaker. The Leslie speaker became the most popular, which is a rotating type speaker. The three most popular models of Hammond organs were the consoles: the B-3, C-3, and A-100. Inside all three models, the tone generators, drawbars, and keyboards were identical. The B-3 cabinet stood on 4 legs, the C-3 was an enclosed "church" model, and the A100 series had built in amplifiers and speakers.
In addition to these console models, Hammond also produced spinet models, which differed from the consoles in the size of keyboard (44 keys per keyboard versus 61 for the consoles, and 12 or 13 pedals instead of 25) and the absence of foldback and scaling in the keyboards making them cheaper to manufacture. Other features of the console organs such as vibrato or percussion were included in the spinets; all the spinet models featured a built in amplifier and speaker; when used with the external amplified speaker (e.g.: Leslie) they sound similar to the console models. These smaller all-in-one organs were intended primarily for use in homes or very small churches. Though originally produced to replace organs in the church, the Hammond organ, especially the model B-3, became popular in jazz, particularly soul jazz, and in gospel music. Since these were the roots of rock and roll, the Hammond organ became a part of the rock and roll sound. It was widely used

Frequency divider organs used oscillators instead of mechanical parts to make sound. These were even cheaper and more portable than the Hammond. They featured an ability to bend pitches.
In the 1940s until the 1970s, small organs were sold that simplified traditional organ stops. These instruments can be considered the predecessor to modern portable keyboards, as they included one-touch chords, rhythm and accompaniment devices, and other electronically assisted gadgets. Lowrey was the leading manufacturer of this type of organs in the smaller (spinet) instruments.
In the '60s and '70s, a type of simple, portable electronic organ called the combo organ was popular, especially with pop and rock bands, and was a signature sound in the pop music of the period, such as The Doors, Led Zeppelin, and Iron Butterfly. The most popular combo organs were manufactured by Farfisa and Vox.

Conn-Selmer and Rodgers, dominant in more larger instrument market, also made electronic organs that used separate oscillators for each note, giving them a richer sound, closer to a pipe organ, due to the slight imperfections in tuning, by not using precise division.

Also available are hybrids, starting from early 20th century, which incorporating a few ranks of pipes to produce some sounds, and using electronic circuits or digital samples for other sounds and to resolve borrowing collisions. Major manufacturers include Allen, Walker, Compton, Wicks, Marshall & Ogletree, Phoenix, Makin Organs, Wyvern Organs and Rodgers.

Rock n Roll Fender organ 1960's

Orchestral Instrument placement

Double Bass

Low bass tones, usually played using a double bass, cello, tuba, bass guitar, piano & synthesize bass. Bass is an important part as it used  of completing the three-part music, among others:
a - Solo - Vocal & solo instrument
b - Middle section - Rythmn
c - Bass - Double bass, cello & bass guitar.

In music, the bass will be played as a lock (key) to the chord harmony in the song. Bass in modern music is played along with rhythmic percussions or drums. Bass is usually played using fingers or by bowed friction on the string. Techniques "slap" and "thump" was first played since the 1940's. Strings slap with hand and finger thumb out loud the downbeat and upbeat. At the end of the 1960s, a story told that when a the drummer of a Jazz and RnB band is absent on their show, the bass player had to try to play bass while sounding like the rhythm of drums to thump slap technique. That bass player is Larry Graham of Sly & The Family Stone. His technique is soon getting the attention of musicians from Jazz, Funk and RnB community which then become a new style known in for performing & recording music in the 1970's until today. In the pop music, the bass line is usually played together with kick drum.

Guitar Fender Jazz Bass


Overdrive, compressor, Fuzz & saturation are all the same. the aim is to distort damage guitar sound intentionally. Before the existence of electric guitars distortion means damaged optical image as a result of a damaged lens

Big Band

Early 20th century (1910s – 1930s) many experiment were made to amplify guitar sound through loudspeaker because it is not suitable to be played in a bigger band or orchestra of such jazz Big band in 20s & 30s. Luthier is the first electric guitar designer. Les Paul experimenting his guitar by placing a microphone on his guitar. George Beauchamp design electric amplified guitar in1931 together with Adolph Rickenbacker, & Paul Barth who founded "Rickenbacker" company in 1934.

In the early production of guitar Amplifier the condition is primitive & blurry sound. The original sound of the guitar was always damaged when the signal in the amplifier circuit, a problem for a guitar player at that time. the sound of damage & distortion always occurs when the amp (speaker guitar) was disturbed unintentionally causing the Valve or loudspeaker to sound distorted.
Amplifier yang menggunakan tube valve

Tube Valve

The damaged sound or distortion often occur when the amp unintentionally kick or moved. However some guitarist like the sound of damaged or distorted, in some occasion they intentionally moved or disturbed the valve inside their amp. Some guitarist use razor blade, screw driver, or pencil to make a hole on the speaker horn so it’ll sound distorted

One example of earliest distortion guitar is in "Rocket 88" earliest Rock & Roll songs, Ike Turner and King of rythmn guitar Willie Kizart used damaged guitar amp producing an earliest recording of guitar distortion. In the song The Train Kept A-Rollin (1956) by Johhny Burnette Trio, one of valve or tube fell from the amplifier (speaker guitar) in a live performance. When the crowd went crazy about this new sound, Paul Burlinson guitar player was using the same sound in the recording studio. Willie Johnson who played for Howlin' Wolf
recording in Memphis by 1951-1952, used distortion to produce raucous sound in the song along with bluesy voice of Howlin' Wolf.

Guitar player Link Wray unintentionally stir the tube in his amp, & then became a habit for him to pluck or stir tube amp making his guitar sound dirty.

Chuck Berry who started with his little amp in his earliest recording (Maybelline), later he use bigger amp which the sound in his recording sounds clean. One other example is -You Really Got Me-The Kink in 1964.

Leo Fender who founded Fender & Amplifiers observed this trend modify his amp to "compression" or "overdrive" slightly without damaging the guitar signal. Tweed & Blackface Fender amp tone sounded clean, efficient. Jim Marshall took this idea and produce amplifiers with "marshall overdrive" that emit the legendary "Marshall" sound, which can be heard in many early music groups of Hard Rock band. 1961 guitarist Grady Martin recorded fuzz sound due to network pre amp damaged. The Ventures after hearing the tone of the song "Do not Worry" asked the steel guitarist Red Rhodes & creator for sound equipment. Results on a Fuzz box (overdrive / distortion) effects, the first in the world. "£ 200 Bee" the first song using the Fuzz box.

Maestro FZ-1

The first distortion circuit is marketed by Maestro Fuzz Tone FZ-1 model. May 1965 Keith Richard used in his songs (I can not Get No) Satisfaction. Jimi Hendrix also uses the same effect modified by Roger Mayer.

Jimi Hendrix's distortion Fuzz Face, FuzzRite.

Paul Mcartney & George Harrison of The Beatles use one of these Big Muff Pi & Vox Tone Bender for the song - Think For Yourself.

Pete townshend use Univox Super Vox from 1968-1978.

Fuzzboxes start using germanium transistors, but replaced by silicon transistor in late 1960s. In the 1980s the composition of boxes unit of digital effects (Distortion, heavier & harder / chorus / flanger / delay / reverb / compressor) began to replace the state stompboxes / fuzzbox.

Metal muff with booster 

Pedal board

DS-1 Distortion

Metal Distortion


Steve Vai Guitar Effect pedal & Racks

Today there are many kinds of distortion effect. There are also boxes for the simple effect from Boss company for Metal songs. Lot of famous guitar players prefer to use digital effects rack like those of Joe Satriani, Steve Vai & many more. There are also more like the effect Posted guitar amplifier built in, such as Kurt Cobain.

Drum carved in middle east

Drum (drums) is an ancient invention of various races & civilization in the past as early as 6000 BC (8000 years ago). Ancient drum have been found in Mesopotamia dated back 3000 BC (5000 years ago)in East Asia & Africa by archeologist. Ancient Africans used drums to express their feelings and also as a means of communication between villages. Rock n Roll Rhythm & Jazz are heavily influenced by drum beat originated from Africa to America in the past. When people found out that one man can play few drum at once, drums began to compile into a set of drums.

Goblet drum or ancient Darambuka

Darbuka or darambuka believed to have come from the Aryan or Celtic musical instruments of Eastern Europe, brought to western Asia through trade since thousands of years ago. However drums or drum is owned & invented by one nation alone because it is an independence invention of various culture. This percussion instrument is available in all musical cultures around the world. Earliest drum used as a communication tool for African & Native American. Also as a spiritual tool in some old cultures. From China to India, the Arabian peninsula to Africa, Europe & Russia, Southeast Asia & Polynesia, north to the south of Native American traditional can be found in all culture.

18th Century Snare Drum

The drummer is not only playing one type of rhythm, but also imported beat of various cultures from around the world. Drums was first known as the drum kit as early as 1900s. Noble & cooley oldest U.S. drums manufacturers since 1854. In 1900s cymbal & tom tom, resembling ancient China drums was added later (we can see it the lion dance, but drums are not played in chinese style of music. but more likely drum beats are taken from various cultures of the world). In the 1930's, drum has become a complete set. Pearl drum kit started out in 1950, five years after World War 2 ended. 50's decade also saw the emergence of Rock & Roll Music to the rhythm of drums as the main ingredient in the development of Rock & Pop music. In the 1960s we saw the rise of Rock & Pop drummer use drum set as a standard drum-kit today. Today, there are many international companies that produce drum equipment. There is also a drum machine that uses synthesized sounds, & there is also an electronic drum pad that is set & played like the acoustic drum

Kick Drum
Ride Cymbal
Snare Drum

Crash Cymbal



 Full Drum Set

Microphone placement

In the recording studio microphone placed on each instrument to capture the sound of drums that will be recorded into the mixer & analog or digital multitrack recorder. In a musical performance of larger venue microphones will be placed to amplify the drum sound.

Zildjian manufacturer of cymbals, percussion and drums is the world's oldest manufacturer company began 400 years ago in Turkey (1623) now based in Norwell Massachusetts USA

Steel Guitar

Steel guitar is a type of guitar and/or the method of playing the instrument. Developed in Hawaii in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a steel guitar is usually positioned horizontally; strings are plucked with one hand, while the other hand changes the pitch of one or more strings with the use of a bar or slide called a Steel (generally made of metal, but also of glass or other materials). The term steel guitar is often mistakenly used to describe any metal body resophonic guitar.
Steel guitar can describe:
  • A method of playing slide guitar using a steel. Resonator guitars, including round necked varieties, are particularly suitable for this style, yet are seldom referred to as "Steel Guitars", but rather referred to generally as a Dobro, acoustic slide guitar, or square neck resonator guitars. Dobro is also a brand name of one of the leading manufacturers of resonator guitars.
  • A specialised instrument built for playing in steel guitar fashion. These are of several types:
    • Lap steel guitar, which may be:
      • Lap slide guitar, with a conventional wooden guitar box.
      • The square-necked variety of resonator guitar.
      • Electric lap steel guitar.
    • Electric console steel guitar.
    • Electric pedal steel guitar.